清丁觀鵬畫太簇始和 軸 丁觀鵬;Ding Guanpeng , 179.3x108.4

詳細資料

基本資料 藏品類型 繪畫
作品號 故畫00306000000
品名 清丁觀鵬畫太簇始和 軸
作者 丁觀鵬;Ding Guanpeng
書體
色彩
裝裱形式
創作時間
數量 一軸
作品語文
集叢號 件: 開: 幅: 單件
釋文

典藏尺寸 【位置】 【尺寸】(公分)
本幅 179.3x108.4

質地 【質地位置】 【質地】
本幅

題跋資料 【題跋類別】 【作者】 【位置】 【款識】 【書體】 【全文】
作者款識 丁觀鵬 本幅 臣丁觀鵬恭繪 楷書
印記: 臣丁觀鵬、恭畫
題跋 清高宗 本幅 行書 青帝權衡物紐芽。春臺溫盎樂羲車。仙蓂七葉人為日。寶勝三珠玉是花。膏澤平鋪蔥嶺雪。祥光濃疊赤城霞。試燈闤闠聞簫鼓。暫許金吾不禁譁。新春試筆之作。
印記: 乾、隆

印記資料 【印記類別】 【印記】
鑑藏寶璽 乾隆御覽之寶
鑑藏寶璽 寶笈三編
鑑藏寶璽 宣統御覽之寶
鑑藏寶璽 嘉慶御覽之寶
鑑藏寶璽 嘉慶鑑賞
鑑藏寶璽 石渠寶笈
鑑藏寶璽 三希堂精鑑璽
鑑藏寶璽 宜子孫

主題 【主題類別】 【主題(第一層)】 【主題(第二層)】 【主題說明】
主要主題 山水 春景
次要主題 山水 奇石
次要主題 山水
次要主題 人物 仕女
次要主題 人物 孩童
次要主題 人物 圉人
次要主題 人物 商販
次要主題 人物 貨郎
次要主題 人物 行旅
次要主題 人物 百姓
次要主題 樹木 寒林.枯樹 枯樹
次要主題 樹木
次要主題 樹木
次要主題 樹木
其他主題 花草 梅(白.紅.蠟梅) 紅梅
其他主題 花草 牡丹
其他主題 走獸
其他主題 走獸 騾.驢
其他主題 走獸
其他主題 走獸
其他主題 走獸
其他主題 走獸
主要主題 建築 宮殿
主要主題 建築 臺閣
次要主題 建築 房舍
次要主題 建築 店舖
其他主題 建築
次要主題 建築
次要主題 建築 庭院
次要主題 建築 欄杆
次要主題 建築 籬笆、圍牆 圍牆
次要主題 建築 城牆
其他主題 建築 牌坊
其他主題 建築 戲台
次要主題 人力車
次要主題 獸力車
主要主題 節令與二十四節氣 年節 太簇始和
其他主題 器用 傢俱(屏風) 傢俱(桌、椅)
其他主題 器用 飲食器
其他主題 器用 花器 盆栽
其他主題 器用 樂器
其他主題 器用 童玩
其他主題 器用 宗教器用
其他主題 器用
其他主題 器用 燈籠
次要主題 人物 侍從(侍女、童僕) 侍女
次要主題 人物 表演者、雜耍藝人 雜耍
其他主題 佛道人物 僧(和尚、尼姑) 和尚
其他主題 器用 燈(宮燈)
其他主題 樹木

技法 【技法】 【技法細目】
工筆
界畫
皴法
人物衣紋描法(勻稱線條)

參考資料 【類別】 【參考資料】
收藏著錄 石渠寶笈三編(養心殿),第二冊,頁889
收藏著錄 故宮書畫錄(卷八),第四冊,頁122
收藏著錄 故宮書畫圖錄,第十三冊,頁137-138
內容簡介(中文) 丁觀鵬(約活動於1708至1771或稍後), 順天(今北京)人. 乾隆朝擢升為一等畫畫人, 擅長運用明暗設色與焦點透視法. 此圖屬於十二月禁禦圖之一, 畫正月初七各處懸燈結綵. 以紫禁城建福宮(西花園)之延春閣為畫中主體, 四角攢尖頂, 正中覆琉璃寶頂. 園中其它建築積翠亭、敬勝齋、吉雲樓、惠風亭、靜宜軒尚有單檐歇山、硬山、勾連搭卷棚、圓攢尖、四角攢尖等樣式, 屋面滿覆各色琉璃瓦, 有區別等級作用. 門窗採步步錦式樣, 梁柱上繪旋子彩畫.
內容簡介(英文) Ting Kuan-p'eng was a first-rank painter under the Ch'ien-lung Emperor and specialized in Western techniques of shading and perspective. This work, one of the imperial activities from the 12 lunar months, represents the 7th day of the 1st month, when colored lanterns are hung everywhere. This, in fact, is also a faithful view of part of the Forbidden City, including the city wall and streets beyond. The main building in the lower left, for example, is the Yen-ch'un Pavilion with its four-cornered, pyramidal roof topped by a round ornamental tile. The rolltop roof buildings to the lower right represent the Ching-i Hall. Tiles indicate differences in rank. Windows and doors are in the official style, and the lintels are delicately patterned.
內容簡介(中文) 原屬十二禁禦景圖軸之一。所謂的十二禁禦景圖軸,根據活計清檔文獻記錄,是乾隆帝在乾隆十三年(1748)七月初九,交下御製十二個月詩十二首,命丁觀鵬、余省、沈源、周鯤等四位畫家,依據詩意作畫。這十二件作品,又以十二律命題。十二律本為音律單位,因一年十二個月各有配對的音律,因此十二律也被用在十二個月份的區別上。「太簇」即對應元月。此畫即元月之時,建福宮的賞燈景象。
內容簡介(英文) This painting was originally one of a set of twelve hanging scrolls illustrating scenery of the Forbidden City. This set, according to documentary evidence from archival records of the Ch’ing court, was made at the request of the Ch’ien-lung Emperor (r. 1736-1795), who ordered on the ninth day of the seventh lunar month of 1748 that four artists (Ting Kuan-p’eng, Yu Sheng, Shen Yuan, and Chou K’un) do paintings based on his composition of twelve poems on each of the months. These twelve works were also known as the “Twelve Semitones.” The twelve semitones originally were units of pitch in traditional Chinese music, and due to their number, one was assigned to each of the months, hence the use of the semitones for naming the months. The semitone “T’ai-ts’u” was traditionally paired with the first month, so the title of this work in the original Chinese reads, “Peaceful Start of T’ai-ts’u,” here referring to the Chinese New Year.
內容簡介(中文) ※建福宮花園概述※ 寶親王弘曆於雍正五年大婚之後,遷居於乾清宮西二所,即位之後,此地因是「龍潛福地」升為重華宮。乾隆四年下諭將西四、五所及其以南的狹長地帶,漸次構為建福宮花園,以為幾餘游憩之地。《內務府奏銷檔》另有記載,乾隆六年十二月官員上奏:「四所、五所挪在東邊蓋造…新建工程即照燙胎樣式蓋造。」下令:「趁石塘現在開採,此項石料(青白石),即於今冬辦運,明春興建。」由此得知此園始肇於乾隆七年,修建時間雖如御製〈建福宮賦〉所言:「未費司農之帑,何勞庶民之攻,經之營之,募千夫而齊力,如松如竹,閱數月而成功。」但室內裝修一直持續。建福宮花園初期僅有延春閣、靜怡軒、敬勝齋、凝暉堂、積翠亭、吉雲樓、玉壺冰等建築,依西牆而蓋的碧琳館、妙蓮華室、慧曜樓,都為後來添建,乾隆二十三年所有的建築工程基本完成。 建福宮花園殿閣亭軒高低錯落有序,以游廊相連,綴以湖石花木,呈現江南花園靈活多變、豐富多彩的特點。因庭院佔地面積所限,建物尺寸相對較小。〈畫太簇始和〉所繪包括惠風亭、靜怡軒、吉雲樓、敬勝齋、延春閣、玉壺冰及假山上積翠亭,設置棋桌石墩。屋頂各覆以黃、紫藍、綠色琉璃瓦,以區分等級;槅扇門窗裝修採官式樣式,外檐彩繪色彩豐富,實地實繪建築組群與金碧山水互相輝映,正是清代皇家園林的代表。 建福宮花園深受乾隆皇帝的喜愛,曾經多次為作詩賦詞。乾隆三十六年營建寧壽宮花園,即以此園作為造園樣本。從乾隆到光緒皇帝,都將眾多珍玩寶物藏於建福宮花園。末代皇帝溥儀《我的前半生》書中描述到:「滿屋都是堆到天花板的箱子…這是當年乾隆皇自己最喜愛的珍玩。」溥儀計劃清點宮內文物,卻引起宮監因盜竊寶物懼罪縱火。一九二三年敬勝齋不慎失火,十多處建築連同無數珍貴文物剎時化為灰燼,僅殘留各殿柱礎、臺基及惠風亭與疊石堆山。事後據內務府報告:「燒毀金佛二千六百六十五尊,字畫一千一百五十七件,古玩四百三十五件,古書幾萬冊。」二000年北京故宮在中國文物保護基金會,及古建專家學者合作之下,開始進行建福宮花園廢址修繕工程,歷時共費五年,終於二00五年底竣工。丁觀鵬〈畫太簇始和〉所繪保存建福宮花園的設計原貌,遂成為此項重建工程不可或缺的圖像材料。 款識:「臣丁觀鵬恭繪」。 鈐印:「臣丁觀鵬。恭畫。」 (20100407)
內容簡介(英文) ※Garden of the Palace of Established Happiness※ After Hongli (Prince Bao) celebrated his wedding in the fifth year of the Yongzheng Emperor’s reign (corresponding to 1727), he moved into the Second Western Abodes of the Qianqing Palace. And after he assumed the throne in the Qianlong reign, this site as the home of the present emperor was elevated in status to the Chonghua Palace. A Qing memorial also states that in the fourth year of his reign (1739) Qianlong ordered the Fourth and Fifth Western Abodes along with a strip of land to its south to be built as the Palace of Established Happiness, with its gardens serving as a place for leisure. In early 1742 officials memorialized to the throne that new construction to the east of these abodes proceed according to models, upon which the Qianlong Emperor ordered that marble be quarried and transported by winter so that construction could begin in spring of that year. This indicates that building began in Qianlong’s seventh year (1742), and, though construction was completed in a few months as indicated in the emperor’s poem on the palace, interior decoration continued for some time. In its early stages, the palace gardens only included the Yanchun Pavilion, Jingyi Building, Jingsheng Studio, Ninghui Hall, Jicui Belvedere, Jiyun Tower, and the Yuhubing (Bilin Lodge, Miaolianhua Chamber, and Huiyao Tower built along the west wall were all later additions). Thus, basic construction was not completed until the 23rd year of Qianlong’s reign (1758). (20100407--E1)
內容簡介(英文) The buildings in the Garden of the Palace of Established Happiness, with their orderly roof height, are connected with corridors and embellished with lake rocks as well as various trees and plants, revealing the nimble variety and plenty of a Jiangnan southern garden. Due to limited space in the Garden, the buildings there are by necessity relatively small. Depicted in Ding Guanpeng’s “Peace for the New Year” is the Huifeng Belvedere, Jingyi Building, Jiyun Tower, Jingsheng Studio, Yanchun Pavilion, Yuhubing (and Jicui Belvedere on top of the artificial mountain in the foreground, the stone chessboard table and stools also appearing off to the side. The roofs are covered with yellow, purplish-blue, and green glazed tiles to distinguish their different status. Doors and windows are ornamented with lattice patterns and the outer eaves richly painted, the decorative buildings echoing the golden blue-green colors of the landscape in the painting, making this a representative example of a Qing imperial garden. (20100407--E2)
內容簡介(英文) The Garden of the Palace of Established Happiness was a favorite of the Qianlong Emperor, who often composed poems on it. In 1771 he also had the Garden of the Palace of Tranquility and Longevity (Ningshou) modeled after it. The Qianlong to Guangxu Emperors all stored their treasured collections of objects at the Garden of the Palace of Established Happiness. Even the last emperor of China, Puyi, wrote in his memoirs that the buildings were filled to the roofs with cases of the Qianlong Emperor’s most precious objects. When Puyi planned to conduct an inventory, however, palace eunuchs allegedly feared that pilfering of the collection would be exposed and set fire to the complex. Therefore, in 1923 the Jingsheng Studio went up in smoke, and more than a dozen other connected buildings along with their innumerable treasures all were reduced to ashes, leaving only the columns and foundations along with the artificial mountain. According to a report prepared by the Imperial Household Department, 2,665 gilt Buddha sculptures, 1,157 works of painting and calligraphy, 435 curios, and tens of thousands of rare books were destroyed. In 2000 the Beijing Palace Museum and the Hong Kong-based China Heritage Fund, through the cooperation of specialists in traditional architecture and scholars, began the process of creating an exact replica of the Palace of Established Happiness on its former foundations, with completion not coming until five years later at the end of 2005. Ding Guanpeng’s “Peace for the New Year” here in the National Palace Museum preserves much of the original appearance of the Garden of the Palace of Established Happiness and played a crucial role in providing visual material for its reconstruction in Beijing. Signed: “Reverently painted by Your Servant, Ding Guanpeng.” Seals: “Your Servant, Ding Guanpeng” (Chen Ding Guanpeng) and “Reverently painted” (Gong hua). (20100407--E3)
研究性論著 丁觀鵬( 約活動於1708至1771或稍後 ), 順天( 今北京 )人. 雍正年間地位不高, 在宮中向郎世寧、王致誠學習; 乾隆朝擢升為一等畫畫人, 常與其他御用畫家合畫皇帝指定的節令題材. 他擅長運用西畫的明暗設色與焦點透視法, 在畫面製造立體感. 此圖屬於描寫歲時的十二月禁禦圖之一, 所畫為正月初七各處懸燈結綵, 是以紫禁城外西路建福宮( 西花園 )為畫中主體, 描寫城內外的新春景象. 花園主殿延春閣為攢尖式屋頂建築( 用於面積不大亭閣塔樓 ), 作為園林配景十分協調. 兩層建築立於漢白玉須彌座台基上, 四角攢尖頂, 四條斜脊交合於頂, 上覆以黃琉璃寶頂, 而用重檐做法, 增加其富麗堂皇之感. 亭之四面皆五楹, 假山環繞前院. 宮內樓閣亭軒屋頂樣式有單檐歇山頂、硬山頂、勾連搭卷棚頂、圓攢尖頂、四角攢尖頂等, 屋面皆滿覆黃、紫、藍、綠各色琉璃瓦, 若依等級來分, 黃為上, 紫藍次之, 綠又次之, 有區別等級作用, 又具藝術裝飾效果. 門窗採用官式格扇步步錦式樣, 梁枋上繪有清官式「旋子彩畫」, 額枋彩畫枋心、藻頭、盒子都精細具體. 此圖為寫實的樓閣界畫, 閣前有積翠亭, 閣後有敬勝齋, 東為吉雲樓. 左下角可見惠風亭、存性門與靜宜軒, 四周圍以牆垣, 以廊廡相接. 畫上方有凸形垛口的紫禁城牆, 城外即是景山, 左面大街為景山西街, 街左為大高玄殿, 大高玄殿門外清代官式「三間四柱七樓」式牌樓是北平市街最精巧的. 圖中所繪建福宮花園中樓閣多在大火中焚毀, 現僅存惠風亭. 此圖幸能保存當時建築的風貌, 為融合中西技藝之清代院畫代表作.(林莉娜)
參考書目 1.林莉娜,〈清丁觀鵬畫太簇始和〉,收入林莉娜主編,《宮室樓閣之美 - 界畫特展》(臺北:國立故宮博物院,2000年初版),頁111-112。 2.王耀庭、陳韻如,〈清丁觀鵬畫太簇始和〉,收入王耀庭主編,《新視界 : 郎世寧與清宮西洋風》(臺北:國立故宮博物院,2007年初版),頁122-125。 3.吳文彬 ,〈丁觀鵬所畫的兩幅年景畫 — 太平春市與太簇始和〉,《故宮文物月刊》,第35期(1986年2月),頁40-45。 4.林莉娜 ,〈靜觀建福-清丁觀鵬〈畫太簇始和〉之研究〉,《故宮文物月刊》,第326期(2010年5月),頁114-127。
網頁展示說明 丁觀鵬(約活動於1708?1771或稍後 ),順天(今北京)人。雍正(在位1722?1735)年間地位不高,在宮中向郎世寧、王致誠學習;乾隆朝擢升為一等畫畫人,常與其他御用畫家合畫皇帝指定的節令題材。他擅長運用西畫的明暗設色與焦點透視法,在畫面製造立體感。   此圖屬於描寫歲時的十二月禁禦圖之一,所畫為正月初七各處懸燈結綵,是以紫禁城外西路建福宮( 西花園)為畫中主體,描寫城內外的新春景象。花園主殿延春閣為重檐攢尖式屋頂建築(用於面積不大亭閣塔樓),作為園林配景十分協調。兩層建築立於漢白玉須彌座台基上,四角攢尖頂,四條斜脊交合於頂,上覆以黃琉璃寶頂,而用重檐做法,增加其富麗堂皇之感。亭之四面皆五楹,假山環繞前院。宮內樓閣、亭軒屋頂樣式有硬山頂、勾連搭卷棚頂、圓攢尖頂、四角攢尖頂等,屋面皆滿覆黃、紫、藍、綠各色琉璃瓦,若依等級來分,黃為上,紫藍次之,綠又次之,有區別等級作用,又具藝術裝飾效果。門窗採用官式格扇「 步步錦 」式樣,梁枋上繪有清官式「旋子彩畫」,額枋彩畫精細具體。   此圖為寫實的樓閣界畫,閣前有積翠亭,閣後有敬勝齋,東為吉雲樓。左下角可見惠風亭、存性門與靜宜軒,四周圍以牆垣,以廊廡相接。畫上方有凸形垛口的紫禁城牆,城外即是景山,左面大街為景山西街,街左為大高玄殿,大高玄殿門外清代官式「三間四柱七樓式」牌樓是北平市街最精巧的。圖中所繪建福宮花園中樓閣多在大火中焚毀,現僅存惠風亭,此圖幸能保存當時建築的風貌,為融合中西技藝之清代院畫代表作。(林莉娜)
網頁展示說明 Ting Kuan-p'eng, a native of Peking, rose to become a first-rank painter in the reign of the Ch'ien-lung Emperor (r. 1736-1795) and specialized in Western techniques of shading and perspective. This work is one painting of the imperial activities in the twelve lunar months. Here is a representation of the seventh day of the first month, when colored lanterns are hung everywhere. This painting, in fact, represents a faithful view of part of the Forbidden City, including the city wall and streets beyond. The main building in the lower left, for example, can be identified as the Yen-ch'un Pavilion with its four-cornered, pointed roof topped by a round glazed piece. Behind is the Ching-sheng Studio, while to the right is the Chi-yun Building. In the lower right is the Hui-feng Pavilion and in the lower left the Chi-ts'ui Pavilion. The series of curving rolltop roof buildings to the lower right represent the Ching-i Hall. In fact, varieties of roof types are found here, including conical pointed and pyramidal, gabled, curved, and connected ones. The variety of tiles also indicates differences in rank. Windows and doors are in the official style, and the lintels are delicately painted with patterning.
參考書目 童文娥,〈清丁觀鵬畫太簇始和 軸〉,收入童文娥主編《畫琳瑯—貨郎圖》(臺北:國立故宮博物院,2021.04),頁106-115、143。